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The foreign exchange market (Forex, FX, or currency market) is a global decentralized or over-the-counter (OTC) market for the trading of currencies. This market determines the foreign exchange rate.

A relatively quick collapse might even be preferable to continued economic mishandling, followed by an eventual, larger, collapse.


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Nevertheless, trade flows are an important factor in the long-term direction of a currency's exchange rate. Some multinational corporations MNCs can have an unpredictable impact when very large positions are covered due to exposures that are not widely known by other market participants. National central banks play an important role in the foreign exchange markets.

They can use their often substantial foreign exchange reserves to stabilize the market. Nevertheless, the effectiveness of central bank "stabilizing speculation" is doubtful because central banks do not go bankrupt if they make large losses, like other traders would. There is also no convincing evidence that they actually make a profit from trading. Foreign exchange fixing is the daily monetary exchange rate fixed by the national bank of each country.

The idea is that central banks use the fixing time and exchange rate to evaluate the behavior of their currency. Fixing exchange rates reflect the real value of equilibrium in the market. Banks, dealers and traders use fixing rates as a market trend indicator.

The mere expectation or rumor of a central bank foreign exchange intervention might be enough to stabilize a currency. However, aggressive intervention might be used several times each year in countries with a dirty float currency regime. Central banks do not always achieve their objectives. The combined resources of the market can easily overwhelm any central bank. Investment management firms who typically manage large accounts on behalf of customers such as pension funds and endowments use the foreign exchange market to facilitate transactions in foreign securities.

For example, an investment manager bearing an international equity portfolio needs to purchase and sell several pairs of foreign currencies to pay for foreign securities purchases. Some investment management firms also have more speculative specialist currency overlay operations, which manage clients' currency exposures with the aim of generating profits as well as limiting risk.

While the number of this type of specialist firms is quite small, many have a large value of assets under management and can therefore generate large trades. Individual retail speculative traders constitute a growing segment of this market. Currently, they participate indirectly through brokers or banks. Retail brokers, while largely controlled and regulated in the USA by the Commodity Futures Trading Commission and National Futures Association , have previously been subjected to periodic foreign exchange fraud.

Those NFA members that would traditionally be subject to minimum net capital requirements, FCMs and IBs, are subject to greater minimum net capital requirements if they deal in Forex.

A number of the foreign exchange brokers operate from the UK under Financial Services Authority regulations where foreign exchange trading using margin is part of the wider over-the-counter derivatives trading industry that includes contracts for difference and financial spread betting.

There are two main types of retail FX brokers offering the opportunity for speculative currency trading: Brokers serve as an agent of the customer in the broader FX market, by seeking the best price in the market for a retail order and dealing on behalf of the retail customer. They charge a commission or "mark-up" in addition to the price obtained in the market. Dealers or market makers , by contrast, typically act as principals in the transaction versus the retail customer, and quote a price they are willing to deal at.

Non-bank foreign exchange companies offer currency exchange and international payments to private individuals and companies. These are also known as "foreign exchange brokers" but are distinct in that they do not offer speculative trading but rather currency exchange with payments i. The volume of transactions done through Foreign Exchange Companies in India amounts to about USD 2 billion [70] per day This does not compete favorably with any well developed foreign exchange market of international repute, but with the entry of online Foreign Exchange Companies the market is steadily growing.

These are typically located at airports and stations or at tourist locations and allow physical notes to be exchanged from one currency to another. They access the foreign exchange markets via banks or non bank foreign exchange companies. There is no unified or centrally cleared market for the majority of trades, and there is very little cross-border regulation.

Due to the over-the-counter OTC nature of currency markets, there are rather a number of interconnected marketplaces, where different currencies instruments are traded.

This implies that there is not a single exchange rate but rather a number of different rates prices , depending on what bank or market maker is trading, and where it is. In practice, the rates are quite close due to arbitrage. A joint venture of the Chicago Mercantile Exchange and Reuters , called Fxmarketspace opened in and aspired but failed to the role of a central market clearing mechanism. Banks throughout the world participate. Currency trading happens continuously throughout the day; as the Asian trading session ends, the European session begins, followed by the North American session and then back to the Asian session.

Fluctuations in exchange rates are usually caused by actual monetary flows as well as by expectations of changes in monetary flows. Major news is released publicly, often on scheduled dates, so many people have access to the same news at the same time. However, the large banks have an important advantage; they can see their customers' order flow.

Currencies are traded against one another in pairs. The first currency XXX is the base currency that is quoted relative to the second currency YYY , called the counter currency or quote currency. The market convention is to quote most exchange rates against the USD with the US dollar as the base currency e.

On the spot market, according to the Triennial Survey, the most heavily traded bilateral currency pairs were:. Trading in the euro has grown considerably since the currency's creation in January , and how long the foreign exchange market will remain dollar-centered is open to debate.

Until recently, trading the euro versus a non-European currency ZZZ would have usually involved two trades: The following theories explain the fluctuations in exchange rates in a floating exchange rate regime In a fixed exchange rate regime, rates are decided by its government:. None of the models developed so far succeed to explain exchange rates and volatility in the longer time frames. For shorter time frames less than a few days , algorithms can be devised to predict prices.

It is understood from the above models that many macroeconomic factors affect the exchange rates and in the end currency prices are a result of dual forces of demand and supply. The world's currency markets can be viewed as a huge melting pot: No other market encompasses and distills as much of what is going on in the world at any given time as foreign exchange.

Supply and demand for any given currency, and thus its value, are not influenced by any single element, but rather by several. These elements generally fall into three categories: Internal, regional, and international political conditions and events can have a profound effect on currency markets. All exchange rates are susceptible to political instability and anticipations about the new ruling party.

Political upheaval and instability can have a negative impact on a nation's economy. For example, destabilization of coalition governments in Pakistan and Thailand can negatively affect the value of their currencies.

Similarly, in a country experiencing financial difficulties, the rise of a political faction that is perceived to be fiscally responsible can have the opposite effect. Market psychology and trader perceptions influence the foreign exchange market in a variety of ways:. A spot transaction is a two-day delivery transaction except in the case of trades between the US dollar, Canadian dollar, Turkish lira, euro and Russian ruble, which settle the next business day , as opposed to the futures contracts , which are usually three months.

Spot trading is one of the most common types of Forex Trading. Often, a forex broker will charge a small fee to the client to roll-over the expiring transaction into a new identical transaction for a continuation of the trade. This roll-over fee is known as the "Swap" fee. One way to deal with the foreign exchange risk is to engage in a forward transaction. In this transaction, money does not actually change hands until some agreed upon future date.

A buyer and seller agree on an exchange rate for any date in the future, and the transaction occurs on that date, regardless of what the market rates are then. The duration of the trade can be one day, a few days, months or years. Usually the date is decided by both parties. Then the forward contract is negotiated and agreed upon by both parties. NDFs are popular for currencies with restrictions such as the Argentinian peso.

In fact, a Forex hedger can only hedge such risks with NDFs, as currencies such as the Argentinian Peso cannot be traded on open markets like major currencies. The most common type of forward transaction is the foreign exchange swap.

In a swap, two parties exchange currencies for a certain length of time and agree to reverse the transaction at a later date. These are not standardized contracts and are not traded through an exchange. A deposit is often required in order to hold the position open until the transaction is completed. Futures are standardized forward contracts and are usually traded on an exchange created for this purpose.

The average contract length is roughly 3 months. Futures contracts are usually inclusive of any interest amounts. Currency futures contracts are contracts specifying a standard volume of a particular currency to be exchanged on a specific settlement date. Thus the currency futures contracts are similar to forward contracts in terms of their obligation, but differ from forward contracts in the way they are traded.

They are commonly used by MNCs to hedge their currency positions. In addition they are traded by speculators who hope to capitalize on their expectations of exchange rate movements.

A foreign exchange option commonly shortened to just FX option is a derivative where the owner has the right but not the obligation to exchange money denominated in one currency into another currency at a pre-agreed exchange rate on a specified date. The FX options market is the deepest, largest and most liquid market for options of any kind in the world.

Controversy about currency speculators and their effect on currency devaluations and national economies recurs regularly. Economists, such as Milton Friedman , have argued that speculators ultimately are a stabilizing influence on the market, and that stabilizing speculation performs the important function of providing a market for hedgers and transferring risk from those people who don't wish to bear it, to those who do.

Large hedge funds and other well capitalized "position traders" are the main professional speculators. According to some economists, individual traders could act as " noise traders " and have a more destabilizing role than larger and better informed actors. Currency speculation is considered a highly suspect activity in many countries. He blamed the devaluation of the Malaysian ringgit in on George Soros and other speculators.

Gregory Millman reports on an opposing view, comparing speculators to "vigilantes" who simply help "enforce" international agreements and anticipate the effects of basic economic "laws" in order to profit. In this view, countries may develop unsustainable economic bubbles or otherwise mishandle their national economies, and foreign exchange speculators made the inevitable collapse happen sooner.

A relatively quick collapse might even be preferable to continued economic mishandling, followed by an eventual, larger, collapse. Mahathir Mohamad and other critics of speculation are viewed as trying to deflect the blame from themselves for having caused the unsustainable economic conditions. Risk aversion is a kind of trading behavior exhibited by the foreign exchange market when a potentially adverse event happens which may affect market conditions.

This behavior is caused when risk averse traders liquidate their positions in risky assets and shift the funds to less risky assets due to uncertainty. In the context of the foreign exchange market, traders liquidate their positions in various currencies to take up positions in safe-haven currencies, such as the US dollar. An example would be the Financial Crisis of The value of equities across the world fell while the US dollar strengthened see Fig. This happened despite the strong focus of the crisis in the US.

Currency carry trade refers to the act of borrowing one currency that has a low interest rate in order to purchase another with a higher interest rate. A large difference in rates can be highly profitable for the trader, especially if high leverage is used. However, with all levered investments this is a double edged sword, and large exchange rate price fluctuations can suddenly swing trades into huge losses.

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. For other uses, see Forex disambiguation. Derivatives Credit derivative Futures exchange Hybrid security. Foreign exchange Currency Exchange rate. Balance of trade Currency codes Currency strength Foreign currency mortgage Foreign exchange controls Foreign exchange hedge Foreign-exchange reserves Foreign exchange derivative Money market Nonfarm payrolls Tobin tax World currency Leads and lags.

It has a high win rate and takes advantage of a common trend occurrence—breakout failures. Watching minute charts and trading only the most liquid currency pairs, the system finds easily more than trades per year. Having a strict rule-set Gabriel is confident that someone with the programming skills could turn it into a well-performing automated trading system. His second system is based on price breakouts, which are very easy to spot on the charts.

This system requires a bit more experience to trade profitably than his first system. Gabriel's third system requires more "hands-on" attention. It uses tight stops, so it has the lowest win rate of his three systems.

However, because it provides about trades per year just on the big currency pairs , it is the most profitable and prolific system for traders with some experience and discretion. When you get back home, you can adapt the systems to different currency pairs, shorter time frames, longer time frames, or even to different markets!

These systems do not only work in Forex but as well on Commodities, Equity indices and less liquid Forex pairs with similarly strong results.

Due to the fractal nature of markets the systems work equally well on timeframes as short as a tick chart and as long as end-of-week prices. You have plenty of flexibility to adapt the systems so they fit you.

Here's what one attendee wrote about his experience trading the systems at home:. Taking out trader inefficiency, after the second month I have been able to replicate Gabriel's own results in terms of win rate, expectancy and SQN.

This is the sort of super performance I always dreamed of. I no longer have time to waste, I have a very clear idea of what needs to be done to improve my trading and I am motivated to achieve my goals. I am a dramatically improved trader right now, and I have Gabriel to thank for it. I consider myself an accomplished system builder and there is no way I could ever come up with a system as well thought out as Gabriel's. It is a testament to the super trader process, which I follow faithfully.

Gabriel has been extremely helpful after the seminar also, critiquing my trades, and I am extremely grateful to have met him.

Have you ever attended a trading workshop that taught a lot of methodology and a bunch of rules, only to find that you had trouble trading it when you got back home because you had so little experience with it? Gabriel had that experience and wants to better prepare the traders at his workshop.

Students in his course come away with a solid understanding of the trading process because they practice the setups, entries and exits in groups with other students in the class. After a thorough review of each system, he slowly walks you through a number of trades on each system that has multiple time frame charts—basically the same screen setup that Gabriel uses to identify setups, entries and exits.

All of these trades use recorded historical data run on a software system that reproduces the price charts from the date and time in the live market. You will be able to watch the setups happen as he explains how to get ready for and make the entry, and then how to get ready for and make the exit.

After walking the class through several simulations, Gabriel involves the students in the decision process for pattern detection, entry and exits as the acquire competence.

And just to be sure, Gabriel provides everyone with pages of additional example trades to take home and study. G, Las Vegas, NV. I would like to attend a longer workshop with Gabriel. Do more of these. Many traders had beliefs that sounded something like these:.

Fast forward to now — I still hear those kinds of statements today even though everything about the currency market has changed. What is the reality of Forex trading then today? Have you ever been stuck in a position overnight dreading the large gap at the open? FX is a very large, very liquid market that trades around the clock so opening gaps are effectively eliminated. You can always find good trends in FX because oceans of money are flowing between countries as the relative strength of their economies changes constantly.

Are you tired of slippage, partial fills, and running up large trading commissions and fees? Do you ever enter a position that just doesn't seem to follow the pattern you are trading? FX makes an ideal market for charting and pattern trading from 1min to Monthly charts because of its consistency.

Do most of your trading candidates seem to move together — and not offer setups on a frequent enough interval? Does your net worth decrease when your home country currency weakens? FX offers the ultimate way to diversify your net worth and hedge your risk to it. Hedge a weakening currency or profit by trading it rather than simply watching it fall.

Price movements in FX tend to be smoother than in most other markets which makes FX the ideal asset class to learn how to trade it. Do you think you understand Tharp Think principles and wonder how to put them into use?

Tharp Think principles apply better to FX than with any other asset class. Whether you are a long term trend follower, a fundamentals analyst, or a pure technician, does your preferred approach not work so well in your preferred market?

Do so-called successful strategies not seem to fit you? Out of any asset class, FX allows you the most flexibility to choose a trading style and a timeframe that fits you best.

Busted Breakouts in Forex. Three Upcoming Currency Opportunities. Article Yen Crossing Opportunities. Top Ten Reasons to Trade Forex. Opportunities in the Current Market Environment. The Swissy Unpeg Some Practical. Below are a variety of published articles in German publications which are German Language Only.

Exit Strategy German Language Only. Article 3 - Trader. Article 4 - Trader. The Van Tharp Institute totally guarantees that you will be delighted with this workshop. In fact, we'll take all of the risk ourselves. If you aren't totally satisfied by noon on the second day of the workshop, you can request a full refund. Just return your notebook to a staff member and we'll refund your workshop fee even though you've already had the benefits of part of the workshop.

We expect that you will not only be satisfied with the course but will wish you had stayed on for the extra two days of live trading! The Opportunity Over the coming years, Van Tharp foresees excellent trading opportunities in the currency market because of several big-picture forces. The Instructor Your presenter, Gabriel Grammatidis, is specialized in designing trading systems based on chart analysis for the Forex market. Course Content The Theory: The first half day is spent to go over the specifics of trading the Forex market and cover such topics as: What are the advantages and drawbacks of trading Forex versus other instruments?